PROHIBITION IN THE UNITED STATES
In the United States there was a national ban on the sale, production, and transportation of alcohol from 1919 to 1933. It was called “Prohibition” The ban was mandated by the 18th Amendment to the Constitution. The Volstead Act set rules for enforcing the ban and defined the types of alcoholic beverages that were prohibited. Private ownership and consumption of alcohol was not illegal under federal law, but many local laws were stricter and in some states possession of alcohol was banned completely. Prohibition seemed to work at the beginning but as time passed it became more unpopular, created controversy within political and social settings, and brought about many side-effects such as organized crime. Prohibition ended with the ratification of the 21st Amendment, which repealed the 18th Amendment, on December 5, 1933.
Section 2 has been the source of every Supreme Court ruling directly addressing 21st Amendment issues.
The 21st Amendment in its Section 2 was interpreted to essentially give states absolute control over alcoholic beverages, and many U.S. states remained dry.
Many states now delegate the authority over alcohol granted to them by the 21st Amendment to their municipalities, counties, or both, which has led to many lawsuits over 1st Amendment rights when local governments try to revoke liquor licenses.
Doctor's Prescription for the Use of Medicinal Liquor
Courtesy of the Rex D. Davis Historical file, ATF Reference Library and Archive
During the prohibition years there was only one way to legally obtain alcoholic beverages. It was through a physician's prescription then purchasing the liquor from a pharmacy. Physicians could prescribe distilled spirits, usually whiskey or brandy, on government prescription forms. The government would allow the limited production and distribution of whiskey when stocks were low.
Since ancient times there were widespread beliefs that alcoholic beverages had medicinal value. Those beliefs spread widely after the development of distillation techniques. Physicians prescribed alcohol for all sorts of treatments, from snake bites to disease control. By the early 19th century, especially in England, there was an extensive use of alcohol in medical treatments.
The rise of scientific medicine after 1850 led to changing views, and by the end of the 19th century the therapeutic value of alcohol was disputed and discredited by many practitioners. In 1916 whiskey and brandy were removed from the list of scientifically approved medicines of The United States Pharmacopeia. In 1917 the American Medical Association voted in support of prohibition. The prohibition laws allowed medicinal use of alcoholic beverages through prescription and allowed the distribution of wine for sacramental purposes.
WHAT IS A DIGITAL PEN?
A digital pen or SMARTPEN is a pen that digitally records voices and writes with ink like a regular pen. It uses special digital paper, software applications, and developer-tools to combine the audio and writing and coordinates them all in an innovative manner to allow the user to retrieve the information in sections on-demand, save it on a computer, email it, etc.
Smartpens are essentially ballpoint pens with an embedded computer and digital audio recorder. When used with it's specific digital paper, it records and synchronizes those audio notes with the writings on the paper. This allows users to replay portions of a recording by tapping on the notes they were taking at the time the recording was made. I recommend the kit that comes with special earphones (the mic is in the earbuds so they record away from the scratching tip) and 2 notepads. You do not need to be connected to anything in order to use the SMARTPEN, but if you want to download information into your computer, know that there are two types of pens: wired and Wi-Fi. They both need to be charged with a cable to the computer, so if you want to save some money just get the wired version, but check before you purchase because these may not work with the newer iPads.
WHAT IS IT GOOD FOR?
The digital pen is a useful tool for practicing simultaneous interpreting and many trainers and interpreters call it a portable booth. The digital pen records audio and written notes at the same time, so the user can easily play back the recorded audio by simply placing the tip of the pen on the words or symbols the user wrote on the special paper while recording. Since the audio is recorded while writing, the user can play back the entire track or just single sections of the recording by tapping the desired section of the notes with the tip of the pen.
The digital pen can be used for training or working. Although court interpreters are not allowed to use this device in the courtroom today, the digital pen is being used for depositions, business meetings, conference interpreting and community interpreting. In settings where recording equipment is frowned upon, always notify your client and request permission to use the digital pen.
Translating the Purposely Ambiguous,
Why bringing any booze into or through Delaware is illegal
When you attend a conference in a country famous for producing great wines it is difficult to return without a few bottles for friends and family. But if you were to travel by car to a small vineyard, say in Pennsylvania, and wanted to bring home some souvenirs, you might find yourself in a barrel of trouble. You could get charged with smuggling, failure to pay tax, or other charges. The law that explains this type of action reads more or less this:
Any individual wishing to bring into the state of Delaware alcoholic liquor which is not available through regularly licensed importers must:
A. Notify and receive approval from the Commissioner a letter of intent, and identifying the "Port of Entry", date of arrival and cost.
B. Ship by common carrier to a "Port of Entry". The common carrier must have a bill of lading with type of items, size, brands and amounts on it.
C. Notify the Commissioner that the shipment of alcoholic liquor has arrived and have an agent from the Alcoholic Beverage Control Commissioner inspect, validate, and approve said merchandise.
D. Pay the Delaware state tax and 25% enforcement fee which will be computed on the value of the alcoholic liquor. After making payment, the consignee will receive two copies of the realized purchase order.
A. This rule shall parallel federal regulations in that U.S. citizens are allowed to bring into the state of Delaware up to one liter per day of alcoholic liquor, days not cumulative.
B. Any adult non-resident who is in transit and shall stay not more than 72 hours in Delaware is allowed to have tax free four liters of alcoholic liquor.
C. Any adult non-resident who shall stay longer than 72 hours in the state of Delaware is allowed to bring in up to one liter of alcoholic liquor.
D. Diplomatic, consular, and other privileged personnel have the privilege of importing alcoholic liquor free of tax.
English/Spanish Federal Court Glossary
"Interpreting is interpreting"...
Is it really
all the same?
As an interpreter I provided services in many places and had the opportunity to work and chat with dozens of spoken-language professionals. Some loved court interpreting's criminal matters, others preferred working with medical material or in hospitals, and some would never change conference interpreting for any other type of interpreting no matter how daring or prestigious. My first interpreting work was in the medical field. I loved it. I had grown up reading about diseases, studying anatomy, and watching Quincy; I loved everything from physiology to forensics... in any language. One day in court, a colleague was preparing for a lecture on medical interpreting. "Why? I asked. You're a court interpreter and don't even like medical work." "Interpreting is interpreting," the court interpreter responded. I was quiet, thinking: Hmm...The code of ethics extends to all types of interpreters. Canons such as confidentiality and accuracy must be upheld, as well as professional demeanor. “I guess you’re right,” I responded.
Now that I have somewhat more experience i think that i would respond differently to that comment. Obviously, there are differences in terminology and procedure, but the spirit of the interpretation is not exactly the same in the medical and court interpreting fields. The difference is ]much more than Medical interpreters allowing themselves to act as cultural brokers or convey a need for clarification if they perceive the message isn't understood; misunderstandings in the medical field could affect a patients' health and well-being. When interpreting in court, it is the LEP's duty to request a lower register if he or she does not understand. The LEP, in court, must be diligent, aware, and ensure his or her own understanding. I was aware of these similarities and distinctions but hadn't really questioned if they were merely distinctions in the practice of the professions, while the essence of the remained one, the same. The mind set in court and medical interpreting are not the same and the interpreter must prepare before a session to ensure he or she does not violate the code of ethics of each profession. Working and training strictly in one field and expecting to organically merge or expand into another with minimal training would be unwise. Observation and shadowing are helpful in understanding the role of the interpreter in each field of work, as well as learning to recognize stress and secondary trauma sometimes suffered by interpreters involved in cases of abuse and violence.
Video Remote Interpreting