In this number: Review of Murder Terminology Etymology of Spanish term Arma Blanca Melee Weapons Cultural Differences in Family Court Glossary of Facial Features What are Performance Enhancing Drugs Healthy Body and Soul Tips Links of the Month
Thank you for coming to our January meeting. We were very busy in the courthouse that afternoon, so our reunion was brief yet effective. We were joined by Paul Panusky, a very talented sign-language interpreter from New Jersey who came all the way to Wilmington to be with us. I hope we can all meet on February 20th, as always, at the Brew Haha coffee shop on Market Street and 8th. Have a great month and remember to write down all your newly learned terms and questions so we can review them at our next meeting!
Cultural Differences that an Interpreter May Encounter
In Some Spanish-speaking countries...
the rights of the non- custodial parent to visit the child can be revoked if child support is not paid;
some people do not celebrate their birthdays, so remembering their own age is difficult; certain names are prohibited and parents may not name their children first names that are last names, names that do not match the sex of the child (cannot name a girl Manuel,) names of persons who have been proven to have committed heinous crimes; names that may cause humiliation or harassment; foreign names unless parent is a foreign diplomat.
Blended Family: Familia ensamblada
Family Counselor: Asesor familiar
Mediators in Argentina use a standard welcome-message before starting a mediation-session with parents:
"Querida madre, querido padre: Les doy la mas sincera bienvenida y la felicitacion por decidirse a realizar este trabajo de acuerdo espiritual y material en bien de sus hijos y del suyo propio. Aprecio su esfuerzo y su valor, y por favor trabajen desde el corazon."
Straight: recta Aquiline: aguileña Wide: ancha Flared nostrils: fosas nasales anchas/abiertas flat: chata hook: de gancho bulbous: carnosa narrow: angosta crooked: torcida pug: aplanada pig: de chancho roman: romana upturned: respingada down-turned: caída split: partida
What Are Performance Enhancing Drugs?
Performance-enhancing drugs are substances used by athletes to improve their performances. The term may also refer to drugs used by military personnel to enhance combat performance.
Definition of Doping One popular source defines doping as “the use of a drug or blood product to improve athletic performance.” However, we can see that such a simple definition is obviously much too broad to serve as a precise definition for doping. After all, under this definition, taking Tylenol to relieve muscle aches after a hard workout or using an asthma inhaler to prevent the constriction of the airway and to allow proper breathing, would be considered doping, but it is doubtful that many, if any, authorities would consider those actions to fall under the pejorative category of “doping.” Many of these asthma treatments also fall under the category of steroids, but they should not be confused with anabolic steroids. Of the definitions that attempt to use a philosophical basis to define doping, the marginally more-helpful definitions seem to include a requirement that the act be “a violation of sporting ethics” or “against the principles of sportsmanship." Not all drug-use is doping.
In Spanish the term used to describe the use of performance-enhancing drugs is usually "doping" or "doparse," although this term is broad and is also used to describe the consumption of illegal drugs. Performance-enhancing drugs can be translated "sustancias para aumentar el desempeño o rendimiento físico"
Tips for a Healthy Body and Soul
Interpreters should take good care of their eyesight and of their voice. Making sure eyesight is strong is important to work comfortably and efficiently. If you use glasses, make sure the prescription is correct by going to the optometrist or eye doctor every year or every two years at the most. If you work in an area where the air is dry, use moisturizing eye drops to keep your eyes lubricated. Remember that skin also gets dry, so use lotion and drink plenty of water. Every morning apply a day-cream that contains at least an SPF of 35 to the face, front and back of the neck, and the chest. The SPF factor will protect from harmful sun-rays and the nutrients of the cream will fight the aging process, keeping you looking young and healthy. For more tips go to the Health Body and Soul page.
Review of Murder Terminology
Manslaughter is Homicidio Involuntario. Felony Murder is a murder committed during the commission of a felony and is delito grave/felonía con homicidio or Homicidio durante una felonía. Murder in the First Degree or Murder One is Homicidio de primer grado or Homicidio en el primer grado. Although Spanish-speaking countries do not classify the degree of the crime with ordinals, the interpreter must interpret the terms used in English. Malice is dolo in Spanish.
In Spanish we hear the term arma blanca all the time. In order to clarify what this means I have researched the origin of the term, the general definition, and included some examples. Arma blanca is a metal element (do not use the term instrument here) that has one or more bladed edges, a point, or all of the above. It may or may not have a handle, and the blade and/or point are exposed. Many centuries ago when swords and other war and duel weapons were forged by skilled hands, high quality metals were used, giving their blades a bright silver color. The fact that the blades were uncovered or naked, and the fact that their finish gave off a brilliant white hue, gave these weapons the name of arma blanca, which literally translated means "white weapon" or "pure weapon."
The following is in Spanish with an English translation after the description:
Las partes generales del arma blanca son: punta, hoja o lamina, filo/contrafilo, recazo, empuñadura
Bigotera- Zona corta sin filos y plana próxima a la
empuñadura. En ella se solían poner las marcas del armero. Ricasso
Canales- Canaladuras más estrechas y profundas
que los vaceos. Channels
Contrafilo- Borde cortante de la hoja, normalmente
opuesto al filo principal, de menor longitud y próximo a la punta. False Edge
Espiga- Zona de la hoja que queda cubierta por la
empuñadura y se remacha o atornilla en su extremo para asegurar ésta.Tang
Guardamano- Parte de la guarnición evolucionada a
partir de la cruz que normalmente llegaba hasta el extremo de la empuñadura,
envolviendo de esa forma completamente la mano. Guard, Knuckle
Filo- Borde cortante de la hoja. Una hoja de
espada puede tener uno o dos filos. Edge
Hoja- Elemento principal, cortante y/o
punzante, de un arma blanca. Blade
Lomo- Borde no cortante. Puede ser de sección
cuadrada o redonda. Butt
Mesa- Zona plana presente en parte o la
totalidad de la hoja. Cuando se describe una hoja, lo más habitual y correcto
es contar sólo las de una cara, es decir, la mitad de las realmente
Pala- Zona de la hoja próxima a la punta, sin
vaceos ni canales, habitualmente con doble filo. Punta
Extremo agudo de la hoja más alejado de
la empuñadura. Point
Recazo- Zona plana y más estrecha que el resto de
la hoja, entre la espiga y ésta. Sólo presente en las antiguas espadas con
empuñadura de taza o concha, visible entre éstas y los gavilanes. También allí se imponían marcas del espadero. Ricasso
Vaceos- Acanaladuras anchas longitudinales
presentes en algunas hojas para mejorar sus condiciones de peso manteniendo
su resistencia. Fuller
Melee (May- Leh) Weapons
Below is a list of weapons classified by function. One category seems to coincide with the Spanish definition of arma blanca. Click on the term Melee and you will find a link to Wikipedia's page for this term.
By function - the construction of the weapon and principle of operation